Calcium sulfate has been used as an augmentation material for more than one hundred years. Records show that doctors used calcium sulfate to combat bone cavities that were caused by tuberculosis. In dentistry, calcium sulfate is a trusted application in paste or putty form that’s clinically effective and safe. The most common uses of calcium sulfate include periodontal defect repair and maxillofacial applications such as sinus augmentations.
The major obstacle with calcium sulfate as a bone cement is the sub-optimal setting in the presence of blood, proteins, saliva, and other biological components. The obstruction retards its transition from paste form to a rigid matrix. There was a need for a modification that could increase the structures’ crystalline form. This would lead to a more stable graft and equalize its degradation with the rate of bone formation.
The formation of Biphasic calcium sulfate (3D Bond) by AUGMA Biomaterials researchers was the solution that was needed to perfect many dental bone augmentation processes. It’s a self-reinforced graft binder cement in granular formation that incorporates calcium sulfate in a hemihydrate and dehydrate phases. The dehydrate portion accelerates the setting process by forming nucleation zones while the hemihydrate portion provides the cement and molding characteristics. In the presence of saliva or blood, the setting time of the cement reduces from 20 minutes to 3 minutes.
Bond Apatite is a bone cement that’s composed of biphasic calcium sulfate and synthetic hydroxyapatite granules. It undergoes setting in three minutes after contact with saline occurs. The Bond Apatite structure consists of particles that are distributed in a specific form. The calcium sulfate acts as a short range space maintainer scaffold while the hydroxyapatite functions as a long term space maintainer. The hydroxyapatite makes up 33.3% of the composition and primarily acts to slow down the resorption time of the graft. All the bioactivity and graft transformation into bone are a result of the bipashic calcium sulfate which makes up the rest of the graft material.
Calcium sulfate has been accepted for more than one hundred years as a highly biocompatible, osteoconductive, and reliable bone graft material. It maintained unfavorable properties for dental procedures, having suboptimal settings in the presence of blood and saliva. The formulation of biphasic calcium sulfate is a revolutionary accomplishment in the world of dentistry. It’s ability to set in the oral cavity and faster resorption time provides clinicians with the ability to treat more augmentation cases.